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The Kent State Massacre occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio on 4 May 1970. 77 Ohio National Guardsmen fired 67 rounds into a crowd of student protestors; the shooting lasted 13 seconds. Four students were killed, and nine were injured; one suffered permanent paralysis.


The Kent State Massacre forced the National Guard to reevaluate its crowd-control tactics. The only equipment available to the guardsmen that day were M1 Garand rifles loaded with .30-06 FMJ ammunition, bayonets, and CS gas grenades. The U.S. Army began developing less lethal means of crowd control, including rubber bullets. The U.S. Army also changed its crowd control and riot tactics, and these changes are used today by police and military forces in the U.S.


The Center for Peaceful Chance was established at Kent State University in 1971; now known as The Center for Applied Conflict Management (CACM), it offers one of the nation’s first undergraduate degree programs in conflict resolution. The Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence, and interdisciplinary program geared toward the prevention of violence, was founded in 1998.

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