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This crash came about from the confluence of multiple factors.

Airbus was criticized for not providing an audible pilot warning when part of the braking system – in this case, the thrust reversers and spoilers – was inoperative, seriously impairing the aircraft’s ability to stop within the expected 1200 to 1700 metres.

The Brazilian national civil aviation agency was criticized for not shutting down the airport due to stormy conditions and standing water on the runway, even when aircraft were experiencing problems before the accident. The Congonhas airport was blamed for not completing the grooving work on the runway when it was resurfaced, putting off this vital work until some future time.

TAM airlines was accountable for incomplete pilot training. It seems likely that pilot error, inexperience, and inability in a crisis was a factor in the TAM Flight 3054 crash. The pilots made an incorrect decision to land, given weather and aircraft conditions at the time, and may have incorrectly handled the controls.

A Brazilian judge determined that the Congonhas Airport runway needed to be 388 meters longer to handle planes the size of an Airbus. By July 20, 2007, Brazilian authorities were redirecting large traffic away from Congonhas Airport, and revisiting plans for other airports to ensure adequate runway length and safety.