It is difficult to summarize the sheer number of ways that the Chernobyl disaster changed public opinions and official policies regarding nuclear power. The explosion itself was blamed on both those in charge of operating the plant and initiating the experimental emergency procedure, as well as the design of the reactor. The culture present at Chernobyl contributed to a reckless disregard for the safety rules and regulations of the plant, which were themselves not sufficient to protect against accidents. It was determined that had the emergency core cooling system been kept online, the incident could have been avoided entirely.
The RMBK reactor design, still used in other parts of Russia, was retrofitted with a number of different safety updates in order to prevent control rods from contributing to another explosion, as had occurred in reactor number four. Emergency procedures were sped up so as to be able to intervene more rapidly, and low power safety equipment was built up in order to lower the chances of a runaway reaction. Safety systems were also re-designed so as to make them more difficult to disable.